Hướng dẫn làm Chủ đề Transport IELTS Writing Task 2

Hướng dẫn làm IELTS Writing Task 2 - Chủ đề Transport
Không phải là nói quá khi nói rằng IELTS Writing Task 2 là phần thi khó nhằn nhất trong bài kiểm tra tiếng Anh chuẩn hoá IELTS (International English Language Testing System). Những năm gần đây, các chủ đề được nhắc đến trong Writing Task 2 của IELTS càng ngày càng mang tính thời sự. Cùng DOL tìm hiểu 1 chủ đề rất thường gặp trong IELTS Writing Task 2 trong thời gian gần đây là Transport qua bài viết dưới đây nhé.

Chủ đề Transport là một dạng chủ đề thông dụng đã được nhắc tới qua bài viết 24 chủ đề thường gặp trong IELTS Writing Task 2.

Đây là tình trạng đang gặp phải nhiều trong các đô thị nên các chủ đề cũng xoay quanh nhịp sống đô thị, giải quyết những tình trạng ùn tắc giao thông trong thành phố, quan điểm của con người về tình trạng này, có một số dạng cơ bản như sau:

  • Nguyên nhân và hướng khắc phục tình trạng kẹt xe giờ cao điểm;
  • Thuận lợi và bất lợi của phương tiện giao thông công cộng;
  • Vấn đề an toàn đường đi.

Vấn đề này sẽ không làm khó bạn nhưng vẫn là ý đó, bạn muốn band điểm cao thì phải sắp xếp ý và dàn bài của mình một cách hợp lý, khôn ngoan. Chú ý đến từ ngữ sử dụng cũng như thêm thắt một chút về ngữ pháp sẽ giúp bạn có thêm điểm cho bài thi.

B. Các ý tưởng có thể triển khai cho chủ đề Transport

Traffic Problems

  • Traffic congestion is caused by commuters travelling to work;
  • Most people live in the suburbs outside city center;
  • Commuters tend to travel at the same time of day;
  • They tend to travel alone;
  • Cars and road space are not used efficiently;
  • This causes traffic jams during the rush hour.

Traffic Solutions 

  • In order to reduce traffic we should change our working habits;
  • The internet can now be used to connect people;
  • More people could work from home;
  • Meetings can be held as video conferences;
  • Workers could be given flexible timetables;
  • Another solution would be to tax drivers;
  • Workers should share their cars and travel together;
  • More people use public transport to the city center
  • In London, for example, there is a congestion charge;
  • This helps to raise money for better public transport;
  • Public transport needs to be reliable and efficient.

Positives of Public Transport

  • We need to reduce our dependence on cars;
  • Parking a car can be extremely difficult in big cities;
  • Well-designed transport systems are comfortable and convenient;
  • Modern public transport can be fast and cheap;
  • Public transport can help to reduce pollution in cities;
  • Investment in buses and trains will ease traffic congestion;
  • Buses can be given special lanes to avoid traffic.

Negatives of Public Transport

  • Public transport if often slow and unreliable;
  • Metro systems and trains are often dirty and crowded;
  • People feel like sardines in a can;
  • Cars are much more comfortable.

Road Safety

  • Driving while tired or drunk is extremely dangerous;
  • Mobile phones can be a dangerous distraction for drivers;
  • They draw the driver’s attention away from the road;
  • The use of phones while driving has been banned in many countries;
  • Punishments are becoming stricter;
  • Television campaigns are used to remind people to drive safely;
  • Speed cameras have become more common;
  • Speed bumps are another form of traffic calming;
  • Many streets are designed with the aim of slowing traffic down.

C. Từ vựng cho chủ đề Transport

  • Pedestrian (n): người đi bộ;
  • Dangerous drivers: những người lái xe nguy hiểm;
  • Raise people’s awareness: nâng cao ý thức con người;
  • Pose a serious threat to…: gây ra sự đe dọa nghiêm trọng cho…;
  • Congestion pricing = congestion charges: việc thu phí ùn tắc giao thông;
  • Licence suspension: việc tịch thu bằng lái;
  • Reduce traffic accidents: giảm thiểu tai nạn giao thông;
  • Cycle lanes = bike lanes: những tuyến đường dành cho người đi xe đạp;
  • Pedestrian (n): người đi bộ;
  • Run a red light: vượt đèn đỏ;
  • Commute/travel long distances to…: đi quãng đường dài tới… .
  • Congestion = traffict jams: ùn tắc giao thông/kẹt xe

D. Một số đề và bài mẫu cho chủ đề Transport

Sample 1:

“Traffic and housing problems in major cities could be solved by moving large companies and factories and their employees to the countryside. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?”

These days with increasing urban populations, there are major problems with congestion and not only the price, but also availability of accommodation in large cities of the world. So what is the best way for the government to solve the problem of traffic congestion? It seems that one possible solution could be to relocate large companies and factories as well as their respective employees out of these urban areas and into more rural ones. In my opinion, I strongly agree that this would have a desired effect in making cities more livable.

To begin with, the traffic problem in cities doesn’t only exist from commuting employees, but also the general public travelling around the city. While this may be a fact, if the number of worker‟s vehicles is reduced on city streets, a large percentage of traffic will obviously decline in rush hours. For example, peak hour traffic is undoubtedly made up largely of staff from companies going to and from home.

Secondly, in regards to housing problems, populations will always continue to grow in cities and therefore inadvertently decrease the number of cheap and available apartments. This is certainly obvious, however, a large proportion of these apartments are occupied by employees from large firms and their families. If this workforce is relocated to housing estates in the country, city apartment blocks will fall in price and certainly increase in availability.

In conclusion, by relocating workers to rural areas to work and reside, heavy traffic conditions and lack of adequate accommodation in city centres will obviously change for the better. As far as I’m concerned, I agree that the government should enforce such a law in order to increase our standard of living in our hectic city life.

Sample 2:

“Every day traffic seems to get worse on our roads. How can we reduce the number of cars on our roads today? What alternatives can we offer car drivers?”

The more people that there are in the world, the more cars there are on the road. People are richer too and often families have more than one car. It has been proved that building more roads does not work; it just encourages more traffic.

So, what can we do? People like their cars and the freedom and independence that cars give them. One possibility would be to raise car taxes and fuel taxes so that people do not want to spend the extra money. Taxes on new car sales as well could be increased in order to discourage people from buying. Perhaps a used car sales tax could be introduced too. In the same way motorways could have tolls charged for using them although this may just increase congestion on smaller roads as people try and avoid the motorways. The government that introduces such ideas will not be popular though and would probably lose power. Governments would therefore be unlikely to set up such new measures.

I think it would be better to try and change people’s attitudes and offer them alternatives. Educate them more about the pollution and waste that they are causing. Persuade them to car share, use public transport or even cycle if the distances are not too long. Countries such as Holland and Denmark are well known for how their citizens are passionate about green issues and how they use bicycles when they can.

Reducing traffic is a difficult task. I don’t think it is possible realistically to reduce car numbers but I do think that we can change people’s attitudes and get them to use different ways of travelling.

Sample 3:

“In order to solve traffic problems, governments should tax private car owners heavily and use the money to improve public transportation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a solution?”

Traffic congestion in many cities around the world is severe. One possible solution to this problem is to impose heavy taxes on car drivers and use this money to make public transport better. This essay will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of such a measure.

One of the first benefits of such a measure is that the heavy taxes would discourage car owners from using their cars because it would become very expensive to drive. This would mean that they would begin to make use of public transport instead, thus reducing traffic problems and pollution as well. Another benefit would be that much more use would be made of public transport if it was improved. It is often the case that public transport in cities is very poor. For example, we often see old buses and trains that people would rather not use. High taxes would generate enough money to make the necessary changes.

Nevertheless, there are drawbacks to such a solution. First and foremost, this would be a heavy burden on the car drivers. At present, taxes are already high for a lot of people, and so further taxes would only mean less money at the end of the month for most people who may have no choice but to drive every day. In addition, this type of tax would likely be set at a fixed amount. This would mean that it would hit those with less money harder, whilst the rich could likely afford it. It is therefore not a fair tax.

To conclude, this solution is worth considering to improve the current situation, but there are advantages and disadvantages of introducing such a policy

E. Một số đề bài khác

  • “Traffic congestion is becoming a huge problem for many major cities. Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce traffic in big cities.”
  • “Traffic-related issues have become very serious in cities globally. What are the most pressing of these problems, and how can they be addressed?”
  • “Despite improvements in vehicle technology, there are still large numbers of road accidents. Explain some of the causes of these accidents, and suggest some measures that could be taken to address the problem.”

Đối những dạng đề đơn giản và cơ bản, bạn cần chú ý đến 2 vấn đề là tư duy logic, sắp xếp các ý tưởng của bạn để lập luận chặt chẽ và từ vựng. Sự liên kết tốt của các vấn đề sẽ khiến cho bài viết của bạn hay hơn, còn từ vựng đa dạng sẽ giúp cho bài viết không bị nhàm chán.

DOL khuyên: Đọc thêm sách sẽ giúp bạn có thêm nhiều ý tưởng và học hỏi từ vựng, cấu trúc ngữ pháp tốt nhất. Chúc bạn làm bài thành công với những lời khuyên trên nhé!

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